Applying Agile Principles to IT Incident Management

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Agile development has grown in popularity in recent years due to its success in delivering software on time and on budget. If you’re looking for a way to make your software development process more flexible and responsive, Agile might be a good option for you. There are many different Agile methodologies, but some of the most popular are Scrum, Kanban, and Extreme Programming (XP).

A development team uses Scrum to create a new application. They break the project into small, manageable tasks and meet regularly to plan, execute, and review progress. A manufacturing company uses Kanban to manage its production chain. You create a visual chart that tracks the status of each product and use that chart to identify and eliminate bottlenecks. Ditto for the marketing team using XP to develop a new website. They work in pairs to code and test the website, receiving user feedback throughout the development process. 


Agile refers to a set of principles and practices that emphasize flexibility, collaboration, and iterative development. An agile team typically breaks projects into small, manageable pieces that can be delivered quickly and frequently. This makes it easier for teams to respond to changes in requirements or the environment. This team comes together around a shared vision and then brings it to life in the way they know best. Each team sets its own standards of quality, usability, and completeness. Business leaders find out that when they trust an agile team, the team develops a greater sense of responsibility and grows to meet and even exceed management expectations. Working with customers and team members is more important than ready-made agreements, and providing a working solution to a customer’s problem is more important than very detailed documentation. 

A software development incident is an unplanned event that affects the normal operation of a software system. Incidents can have a significant impact on the availability and performance of a software system. They can also cause financial loss and damage the reputation of the organisation owning the system.

Crashes in your IT infrastructure can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:

  • Software bugs: Bugs in software code that can cause unexpected system behavior. 
  • Hardware errors: Problems with the physical components of the system, such as the processor, memory or the data storage. 
  • Network outages: Network outages can prevent your system from communicating with other systems internally or via the Internet. 
  • Human Errors: Errors made by users or administrators that can cause the system to malfunction. Incident Management is the process of identifying, analyzing and resolving incidents that disrupt the normal operation of the Service. The aim is to restore the service to normal operation as soon as possible and minimise the impact on the business. This is an important process to ensure the availability and performance of IT services. With a well-defined incident management process, organisations can reduce the impact of incidents and improve the overall quality of their IT services. 

Some problems may be caused by software that has been written internally, others from hardware and software that has been purchased. For the incident management professional, what the problem is isn’t really the big deal. The process to go from alarm bells ringing in the back ground to calm working conditions is really what matters. The principles of Agile can help with that.


Agile principles play a crucial role in incident management, bringing several benefits and improving the overall effectiveness of the process. Here are some key reasons why Agile principles should be an important part of your incident management:

  • Flexibility and Adaptability: Incidents can be unpredictable and may require flexibility in response. Agile methodologies embrace change and adaptability, allowing teams to adjust their plans and approaches based on evolving incident circumstances. Agile teams are equipped to handle unforeseen challenges, make quick decisions, and modify their incident response strategies as needed.
  • Continuous Learning and Improvement: The Agile mindset encourages continuous learning and improvement. In incident management, this means analysing incidents, identifying root causes, and implementing corrective actions to prevent similar incidents in the future.

    Agile principles like retrospective meetings allow teams to reflect on their performance, learn from their experiences, and adapt their practices for better incident response in the future.

  • Continuous Visibility and Transparency: Agile practices emphasise transparency and visibility of work progress. In incident management, this enables stakeholders to have a clear view of incident status, resolution progress, and any potential bottlenecks. Increased visibility helps manage expectations, facilitates effective communication, and enables timely decision-making during incident response.

By incorporating Agile principles into incident management, organisations can enhance their ability to handle incidents efficiently, minimize downtime, and continuously improve their incident response capabilities. Agile enables teams to be more adaptable, collaborative, and customer-focused, leading to faster incident resolution, reduced impact on services, and increased overall organisational resilience.


When Agile principles are applied to incident management, it brings a flexible and iterative approach to handling incidents. In this section I will discuss key Agile principles and how they can be applied to incident management.

Empirical Process Control: 

Empirical process control is a fundamental Agile principle that emphasises learning and adaptation through data analysis. Applying this principle to incident management involves collecting incident data, analysing metrics, and using the insights to make informed decisions, adjust processes, and continuously improve incident response. This includes:

  • Transparency: Making processes transparent allows for open communication and collaboration and helps to ensure everyone is on the same page. Agile teams can use tools like Jira or Trello to track their processes. This allows them to share information with stakeholders and identify problems or areas for improvement. Sharing data allows teams to openly and regularly exchange information with each other and with stakeholders.
  • Inspection: Agile teams regularly review their processes to identify problems or areas for improvement. This allows them to take corrective action before the problems become too big. This means agile teams regularly review their work to identify problems or areas for improvement. This ensures that the work is of high quality and that the project is progressing as planned. When teams regularly review their work, they are more likely to find and fix bugs sooner.
  • Adaptation: Agile teams are built to adapt to change. They must be willing to change their processes as needed to improve their performance. Agile teams typically take a continuous improvement approach to their processes. This allows them to make small changes to their processes on a regular basis and learn from each change.

By applying agile principles to empirical process control, companies can improve their ability to deliver high-quality software.

Customer Collaboration over Contract Negotiation: 

In incident management, the focus should be on collaborating with the affected customers or users rather than adhering strictly to predefined processes or procedures. This involves effective communication, understanding customer needs, and involving them in incident resolution discussions to ensure their requirements are met.

A sprint planning meeting is a great tool where the agile team and their customers make plans for what to work on for the next sprint. This includes discussing the user stories we will be working on and the customer’s feedback. Sprint reviews are meetings where the team demonstrates the work done in the sprint to the customer. This gives the customer an overview of the progress of the project work and allows him to express his opinion.

In incident management, we prioritise incidents based on impact to customers and keep customers informed throughout the incident response process. Using techniques such as user stories is one way to capture customer needs and have a document of the entire incident for future discussion.

Collaboration with the customer ensures that the team is working on the right things and that the product meets the needs of the customer.

Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools: 

Incident management should prioritise the collaboration and interaction between individuals involved in resolving the incident by building a cross-functional incident management team and empowering team members to make decisions. This principle emphasises the importance of clear communication, teamwork, and knowledge sharing among incident response teams to efficiently address and resolve incidents.

When teams focus on individuals and interactions, they are more motivated and engaged. This can result in a more productive and enjoyable work environment. You can use some strategies, e.g. B. Pair programming, a technique in which two programmers work together on the same task. This helps improve communication, collaboration, and knowledge sharing. Standup meetings are short daily meetings where team members share their progress and the obstacles they face. This helps to keep everyone on the same page and catch problems early.

Additionally, regular retrospective meeting that take place after a sprint to take stock of the processes that have been used in recent sprints/incidents and identify opportunities for improvement.

Responding to Change over Following a Plan:

The Agile Manifesto states that “reacting to change rather than following a plan” is one of its core values. This means agile teams should value being able to react to change rather than following a rigid plan and this is even more important when handling incidents.

Incidents are often unpredictable. Who plans for a major outage on a specific time and place? (Incident management people do, but typically only testing the current incident management process that are currently in place.

Agile principles promote flexibility and adaptability in response to unplanned incidents. Teams should be ready to adjust their plans, workflows, and priorities as new information emerges during incident response by adapting incident response plans in real-time. This allows for a more responsive and effective approach to handling incidents. 

Working Software over Comprehensive Documentation: 

While documentation is important, Agile principles emphasise the value of working software. In incident management, the focus should be on resolving the incident promptly and restoring services rather than spending excessive time on extensive documentation.

However, it is still essential to capture key information and lessons learned for future reference and continuous improvement. This can help reduce the risk of product rejection or the need for a redesign and increase the likelihood of effective customer communication. This can help ensure that the customer is happy with the product and any changes can be made quickly and easily.

Too often an incident management system becomes more about stats and who is doing more than everyone else than being about serving the customer. It is important to make sure that documentation is essential and more necessary for future learning that for choosing who does more, or who does less.

Some processes do require more documentation than others. For example, every organization should have a plan in case of a disaster and how it will be handled. Everyone that has gone through a disaster knows the plan won’t work exactly as written, so finding the proper amount of documentation is key.

Iterative and Incremental Delivery: 

Agile promotes an iterative approach to work. In incident management, this means breaking down the incident resolution process into smaller, manageable tasks or increments. By addressing incidents incrementally, teams can make progress and deliver tangible results at regular intervals, improving efficiency and maintaining momentum.

Continuous Improvement: 

After resolving an incident, teams should conduct retrospective meetings to reflect on what went well, identify areas for improvement, and implement changes to prevent similar incidents in the future. This iterative feedback loop helps drive ongoing improvement in incident response capabilities.

By applying these principles to incident management, organizations can enhance their ability to respond to incidents efficiently by: collaborating effectively, adapting to changing circumstances, and continuously improving incident response practices. While every incident is generally different from the other (or you have a different problem in your organization), the process to handle all incidents will generally operate the same way more or less.

It promotes a more flexible, customer-focused, and iterative approach to handling incidents, ultimately leading to better service quality and customer satisfaction.


In this section I want to summarize the benefits we have covered in this article. While IT incident management isn’t exactly the same as software development, many of the principles transfer easily to managing incidents that frequently occur with an organization’s IT.

  • Improved Collaboration and Communication: Agile emphasises collaboration and effective communication among team members. In incident management, this is vital for coordinating efforts, sharing information, and resolving issues efficiently. Agile practices such as daily stand-up meetings, visual boards, and cross-functional teams promote clear and open communication, enabling faster incident resolution and knowledge sharing.
  • Rapid Response: Agile methodologies promote a quick and responsive approach to problem-solving. By embracing Agile principles in incident management, teams can quickly identify, prioritise, and address incidents, minimising their impact on service delivery. Agile practices like short feedback loops and frequent communication enable teams to adapt and respond promptly to changing circumstances.
  • Increased customer satisfaction: Agile methodologies prioritise customer satisfaction and value delivery. In incident management, this means placing the customer at the center of the response efforts. By adopting Agile principles, incident management teams can ensure that customer needs and expectations are understood and addressed promptly. This customer-centric approach helps maintain trust, minimise service disruptions, and deliver a positive customer experience during incidents.
  • Reduced Risk and Downtime: By adopting Agile principles, incident management teams can proactively identify and mitigate risks. Frequent inspections and adaptations help in identifying root causes, implementing preventive measures, and reducing the likelihood of recurring incidents, minimising the impact on service availability.
  • Empowered and Engaged Teams: Agile principles empower team members to make decisions, collaborate, and take ownership of incident resolution. This fosters a sense of responsibility, engagement, and motivation, leading to increased productivity and job satisfaction.
  • Enhanced Data-Driven Decision Making: Agile principles encourage teams to rely on data and metrics for decision making. In incident management, this enables teams to analyse incident data, identify patterns, and make informed decisions to improve incident resolution processes.

Agile is a project management methodology that emphasizes iterative development, ongoing collaboration, and customer feedback. It’s a popular choice for companies of all sizes because it enables teams to deliver products and services faster and more efficiently. Teams can quickly adapt to change and unforeseen circumstances, delivering products and services faster.

There are some challenges; The team must be comfortable with iterative development, continuous collaboration, and gathering customer feedback. Teams need to work in a flexible environment that allows them to quickly adapt to change. The optimal use of agility varies depending on the typical types of incidents as well as the team involved.