In the Happy Database movies, SQL Server is benign and friendly, with no scary surprises lurking around the next corner. In these movies:
- People work together
- No-one but the DBA can make changes to production
- People tell us in advance when they want to change something
- When query performance degrades, we're notified about it
- Third Party vendors only deploy good changes
- Deployment scripts always work perfectly
Back in the real world of SQL Server, not all of these are true all of the time and the result is that we spend long weekends slaving over fixes for things that should never have been broken in the first place, or that we should have known about before they became a big problem.
In this article, plus the associated whitepaper (PDF), I uncover six common but scary surprises that often lurk behind the innocent-looking green "Play" signal in SQL Server Management Studio's Object Explorer. I'll also discuss how, with the right tools, you can uncover some of these potential threats, and make sure that the second another rears its head, you know about it. At the end of the PDF download, I provide a Further Reading list, where you can find deeper details on each of the specific "monsters", should you suspect that one of them has infested your SQL Servers.
This article, Lesson 3 of the Top 5 Hard-earned Lessons of a DBA, features just one my scary surprises, "When a TempDB Starts Dragging a Leg". To read the full Six Scary SQL Surprises, download the associated free whitepaper featured on this page and learn the lessons the easy way.
When a TempDB Starts Dragging a Leg
TempDB database is available to all users of a SQL Server instance to house temporary objects such as cursors and tables, and it is where SQL Server creates various internal objects for sorting and spooling operations, as well as index modifications. It can get busy in there, especially if there are unruly processes. Of course, as developers and DBAs we must do all we can to mitigate potential problems by shying away from complex and unwieldy routines that overuse
. However, we must also look out for configuration problems that can cause
to start "dragging a leg".
Common causes of
problems, in terms of configuration, include:
- Only one
- Too many
TempDBdata files (like one per core on an 80-core system)
TempDBdata files, but with uneven sizes or uneven auto-growths
In order to understand why
TempDB contention issues might arise, if we have too few
TempDB files, let's go back to storage basics for a minute. SQL Server stores data, in disk or in memory, in 8KB pages, usually stored in groups of 8 KB pages (an extent).
Usually, SQL Server stores one object per extent but not always. If we're creating and dropping many small
TempDB objects (for example, temporary tables, table variables, cursors), we will end up with mixed extents, where data for several objects is stored in the same extent.
There is only one page, the Shared Global Allocation Map (SGAM), which tracks space usage in extents for each 4GB of space. The following figure represents a single
TempDB data file, with the black shaded blocks representing the mixed extents.
Every time we drop, create or expand an object in
TempDB, SQL Server first has to access this single SGAM page. It then scans the Page Free Space (PFS) page to find out which mixed page it can allocate. After allocation, SQL Server must update the PFS and SGAM pages appropriately. If we have many mixed extent allocations, it can cause massive contention on the initial, single SGAM page.
As you can imagine, this is the reason why we might need to add more
TempDB files. If we have four files for
TempDB, then we have 4 SGAMs tracking extent usage and, assuming each file is evenly used, we spread the load and ease contention.
However, this only really works if we make sure to keep the
TempDB files all the same size, meaning setting the same initial size for each file, and the same auto-growth increment. If we don't, and we end up with one
TempDB file that is bigger than all the others, then we'll return to a situation of SGAM contention, as most of the action will hit the largest file.
You may read advice online stating that there should be one
TempDB file per processor core. Be very careful with this advice. If you have a lot of large temporary tables, or perform a lot of operations that spill to
TempDB (for example, big sort operations) then it's possible that the overhead of SQL Server allocating pages among all the
TempDB files, in a round-robin fashion, will slow down these operations. See Paul Randal's blog post for a few more details.
The key to taming
TempDB contention is to use the right number of data files and keep them equally sized. Start with four
TempDB data files, all equally sized and with the same auto-grow increment, and then constantly monitor
TempDB activity levels, and look out for contention.
Trace Flag 1118
This trace flag "forces uniform extent allocations instead of mixed page allocations" and most people advise to enable it, in order to combat
TempDB contention. As always, however, this advice can and likely will change with successive SQL Server version and editions.
After that, we need to monitor for contention issues, for example by tracking PAGELATCH waits on
TempDB (see the Further Reading section in the download). If you're using a tool such as SQL Monitor then you can deploy the
TempDB allocation contention custom metric which will alert you if you're running into SGAM contention.
"...monitor for contention issues, for example by tracking PAGELATCH waits on
TempDB allocation contention in real time, with the SQL DBA Bundle.
We have to keep watching
TempDB constantly. Applications change, and may suddenly start putting more pressure on
TempDB. SQL Server changes; many of its new features tend to use
TempDB (for example, AlwaysOn Availability Groups store statistics and versions in
TempDB), so we constantly need more throughput.
TempDB dragging a leg is just one of many scary surprises that may lurk behind the innocent facade of SSMS…in the whitepaper (PDF) I cover five more:
- The monster that messes with your indexes
- The cannibal that eats all your memory
- The Solid State Drive that turns into a Zombie
- The case of the horribly bloated tables
- The call that's coming from inside the house…
Get the free whitepaper to find out more about these SQL spine-tinglers.
Take care of any scary SQL surprise with the SQL DBA Bundle
The best defense against scary SQL surprises is a full set of reliable SQL Server tools. The SQL DBA Bundle offers seven tools to help you handle any database administration problem, no matter how unexpected:
- Monitor SQL Server performance in real-time and receive alerts within seconds of problems occurring.
- Get embedded advice on the likely cause of server problems, so you can diagnose and fix them fast.
- Keep your data safe with compressed, encrypted, and fully-verified backups.
- Review the full details of your schema and data changes, including SQL CREATE scripts with highlighted differences, so you can deploy updates with zero errors.
- Track data growth so you can plan ahead, and make the most of your current storage space with four levels of backup compression.
- Save time writing SQL in SQL Server Management Studio or Visual Studio, with unparalleled code-completion and customizable SQL snippets.
- Automatically generate database documentation in SSMS, to save time and keep your team up to date.
Whatever database administration job you need to get done, the SQL DBA Bundle's got something to keep your data safe and your servers running properly.
6 Scary SQL Surprises
by Brent Ozar
This article covers just one of Brent's Six Scary SQL Surprises. Find the other five in this free whitepaper.Download
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